写一个商业计划不应该复杂。我n this step-by-step guide, I’ll show you how to quickly and easily write a business plan that will get the results you want. Don’t worry, you don’t have to have a business or accounting degree to put together a great business plan. This guide will show you how to get your plan done step-by-step without any of the complexity or frustration.

你可以下载一个免费的商业计划书模板和课程,请使用这些说明作为指导。

And, you can下载该指南作为免费的电子书to reference while you write your business plan.

Table of Contents:

  1. 商业Plan Components
  2. How to Make Business Planning Easier
  3. 我nstructions for Each Section of Your Business Plan
  4. Further Reading
  5. 工具与下载

The six components of a business Plan

Whether you’re building a business plan to raise money and grow your business or just need to figure out if your idea will work, every business plan needs to cover 6 essential topics. Here’s a quick overview of each topic. There are a lot more details and instructions for each step later in this guide.

1. Executive summary

The executive summary is an overview of your business and your plans. It comes first in your plan and is ideally only one to two pages. Most people write it last, though.Learn more

2.机遇

机会节回答这些问题:什么是你真正销售以及如何解决你为你的市场问题(或“需要”)?谁是你的目标市场和竞争呢?Learn more

3. Execution

我n the execution chapter of your business plan, you’ll answer the question: how are you going to take your opportunity and turn it into a business? This section will cover your marketing and sales plan, operations, and your milestones and metrics for success.Learn more

4.公司管理总结

投资者寻找除了伟大的想法,伟大的球队。使用本公司管理章节来描述当前的团队,你需要雇佣谁。如果你已经启动并运行时也将提供您的法律结构,位置,和历史的简要概述。Learn more

5. Financial plan

你的business plan isn’t complete without a financial forecast. We’ll tell you what to include in your financial plan, but you’ll definitely want to start with a sales forecast, cash flow statement, income statement (also called profit and loss) and your balance sheet.Learn more

6. Appendix

我f you need more space for product images or additional information, use the appendix for those details.Learn more

在这篇文章中的几节,我会潜入你的商业计划的每个部分的细节,着力建设一个,你的投资者和贷款人将要读。

新的呼叫到行动

我f you’re looking for a可下载的商业计划书模板,让你开始, you can skip ahead and现在就下载。Or, if you just want to see what a completed business plan looks like, check out our超过500个免费样品业务计划库

Three rules that make business planning easier:

在你开始你的商业计划书,让我们来谈谈一些“规则”,这将使整个业务规划流程更加容易。betway手机网页我们的目标是让你的商业计划这样做,你可以专注于构建您的业务。

1. Keep it short

商业plans should be short and concise.The reasoning for that is twofold:

  1. First, you want your business plan to be read (and no one is going to read a 100-page or even 40-page business plan).
  2. Second, your business plan should be a tool you use to run and grow your business, something you continue to use and refine over time. An excessively long business plan is a huge hassle to revise—you’re almost guaranteed that your plan will be relegated to a desk drawer, never to be seen again.

2. Know your audience

Write your plan using language that your audience will understand.

For example, if your company is developing a complex scientific process, but your prospective investors aren’t scientists, avoid jargon, or acronyms that won’t be familiar.

取而代之的是:

“Our patent-pending technology is a one-connection add-on to existing bCPAP setups. When attached to a bCPAP setup, our product provides non-invasive dual pressure ventilation.”

Write this:

“我们的专利申请中的产品是一种无动力的,易于使用的装置,在1 /第100次的成本替换医院中使用的传统的呼吸机的机器。”

Accommodate your investors, and keep explanations of your product simple and direct, using terms that everyone can understand. You can always use the appendix of your plan to provide the full specs if needed.

3. Don’t be intimidated

你知道,绝大多数的企业主和创业者不是企业的专家?他们没有MBA学位或会计学位。他们在学习,因为他们去,寻找工具和资源来帮助他们。

Writing a business plan may seem like a big hurdle, but it doesn’t have to be. You know your business—you’re the expert on it. For that reason alone, writing a business plan and then leveraging your plan for growth won’t be nearly as challenging as you think.

而且你不必开始全面,详细的商业计划,我要在这里描述。事实上,它可以更容易地从一个简单的,单页的商业计划书—what we call a Lean Plan—and then come back and build a slightly longer, more detailed business plan later.

The rest of this article will dive into the specifics of what you should include in your business plan, what you should skip, the critical financial projections, and links to additional resources that can help jump-start your plan.

商业计划的执行摘要

执行摘要

Theexecutive summaryof your business plan introduces your company, explains what you do, and lays out what you’re looking for from your readers.Structurally, it is the first chapter of your business plan. And while it’s the first thing that people will read,我generally advise that you write it last.

Why? Because once you know the details of your business inside and out, you will be better prepared to write your executive summary. After all, this section is a summary of everything else you’re going to write about.

我deally, the executive summary can act as a stand-alone document that covers the highlights of your detailed plan. In fact, it’s very common投资者问对于只要the executive summary when they are evaluating your business. If they like what they see in the executive summary, they’ll often follow up with a request for a complete plan,a pitch presentation, and more in-depth financials.

Because your executive summary is such a critical component of your business plan, you’ll want to make sure that it’s as clear and concise as possible. Cover the key highlights of your business, but don’t into too much detail. Ideally, your executive summary will be one to two pages at most, designed to be a quick read that sparks interest and makes your investors feel eager to hear more.

一个成功的执行摘要的关键组件:

一句话业务概况

At the top of the page, right under your business name, include a one-sentence overview of your business that sums up the essence of what you are doing.

这可能是一个口号,但往往是更有效的,如果这句话描述你的公司实际上没有。这也被称为你的价值主张。

Problem

我n one or two sentences, summarize the problem you are solving in the market. Every business is solving a problem for its customers and filling a need in the market.

Solution

This is your product or service. How are you addressing the problem you have identified in the market?

Target market

谁是你的目标市场, or your ideal customer? How many of them are there? It’s important here to be specific.

如果你是一个鞋业公司,你的目标不是“人人”,只是因为每个人都有脚。你最有可能针对特定的细分市场,如“追求时尚的男性”或“跑腿”。这将使它更容易为你的目标你的市场营销和销售力度,吸引各类最有可能的客户向你购买。

Competition

How is your target market solving their problem today? Are there alternatives or substitutes in the market?

Every business有一些形式的竞争and it’s critical to provide an overview in your executive summary.

公司概况和团队

Provide a brief overview of your team and a short explanation of why you and your team are the right people to take your idea to market.

我nvestors put an enormous amount of weight on the team—even more than on the idea—because even a great idea needs great execution in order to become a reality.

财务概要

突出你的财务计划的主要方面,最好有一个图表,显示你的销售计划,费用和盈利能力。

如果你的business model(i.e., how you make money) needs additional explanation, this is where you would do it.

资金需求

如果你正在编写一个商业计划获得银行贷款,或者因为你问天使投资或风险投资资金,你必须包括你的执行摘要所需要的细节。

Don’t bother to include terms of a potential investment, as that will always be negotiated later. Instead, just include a short statement indicating how much money you need to raise.

里程碑and traction

The last key element of an executive summary that investors will want to see is the progress that you’ve made so far and future milestones that you intend to hit. If you can show that your potential customers are already interested in—or perhaps already buying—your product or service, this is great to highlight.

您可以跳过执行摘要(或大大降低了它的范围),如果你正在写一个内部业务计划,纯粹是为您的公司的战略指导。在这种情况下,你可以对管理团队的详细信息,资金需求和牵引分配,而是把执行摘要作为公司的战略发展方向的概述,以确保所有团队成员都在同一页上。

opportunity section of a business plan

机会

有在业务分为四个主要章节计划-机会,执行,公司的概况,和财务计划。The opportunity chapter of your business plan is where the real meat of your plan lives—it includes information about the problem that you’re solving, your solution, who you plan to sell to, and how your product or service fits into the existing competitive landscape.

You’ll also use this section of your business plan to demonstrate what sets your solution apart from others, and how you plan to expand your offerings in the future.

People who read your business plan will already know a little bit about your business because they read your executive summary. But this chapter is still hugely important because it’s where you expand on your initial overview, providing more details and answering additional questions that you won’t cover in the executive summary.

The problem and solution

Start the opportunity chapter by describing theproblem that you are solving为您的客户。什么是他们的主要痛点?他们是如何解决他们的问题今天?也许你的客户的问题的现有解决方案是非常昂贵的或麻烦。对于一个物理位置的业务,或许也有不尽合理的行驶距离内的任何现有的解决方案。

定义你解决你的客户的问题远不是你的商业计划,并为您的企业成功的最关键因素是至关重要的。如果你不能确定问题,你的潜在客户,那么您可能没有一个可行的商业理念。

为了确保您正在解决一个真正的问题,为您的潜在客户,在业务规划进程的重要一步是让离开计算机,betway手机网页实际上go out and talk to potential customers验证你假设他们有问题y have, and then take the next step and pitch your potential solution to their problem. Is it a good fit for them?

Once you have described your target market’s problem, the next section of your business plan should describe your solution. Your solution is the product or service that you plan on offering to your customers. What is it and how is it offered? How exactly does it solve the problem that your customers have?

对于某些产品和服务,你可能想describe use cases或者告诉谁将会从中受益(并愿意支付)解决方案一个真实的用户故事。

Target market

现在你已经在你的商业计划详细的问题和解决方案,现在是时候把你的注意力朝着你目标市场:你是谁卖什么?

根据您开始的业务类型和你正在编写计划的类型,你可能不需要去太多细节在这里。betway官网不管是什么,你需要知道你的客户是谁,有一个粗略的estimate of how many of them there are。我f there aren’t enough customers for your product or service, that could be a warning sign.

市场分析和市场研究

我f you are going to do a市场分析, start with some research. First, identify your market segments and determine how big each segment is. A market segment is a group of people (or other businesses) that you could potentially sell to.

不要落入陷阱,不过,定义市场的“大家”。典型的例子是某鞋业公司。虽然这将是诱人的制鞋公司说,他们的目标市场是大家谁有脚,现实,他们需要针对市场的特定部分,以获得成功。也许他们需要针对运动员或谁需要正式鞋的工作,或者是他们的目标是儿童和他们的家庭的商务人士。详细了解目标市场营销中本文

TAM,SAM,和SOM

A good business plan will identify the target market segments and then provide some data to indicate how fast each segment is growing. When identifying target markets, a classic method is to usethe TAM, SAM, and SOMbreakdown to look at market sizes from a top-down approach as well as a bottom-up approach.

这里有一些快速的定义:

  • TAM:你的Total Available or Addressable Market (everyone you wish to reach with your product)
  • SAM:你的Segmented Addressable Market or Served Available Market (the portion of TAM you will target)
  • SOM:你的市场份额(您的SAM的子集,你将切实达到,尤其是在最初几年你的企业)

Once you have identified your key market segments, you should讨论趋势这些市场。他们在扩大还是在缩小?谈论市场的不断变化的需求,口味,或其他即将到来的市场变化。

你的理想客户

When you have your target market segments defined, it’s time to define your ideal customer for each segment.

谈谈你的理想客户在你的计划的一个方法是使用“buyer persona” or “user persona.”A buyer persona is a fictitious representation of your market—they get a name, gender, income level, likes, dislikes, and so on.

虽然这可能看起来像在市场细分,你已经做的顶部额外的工作,有一个坚实的买家角色将是帮助一个非常有用的工具,您确定市场营销和销售策略,你将需要使用吸引这些客户理想。

Key customers

你的目标市场本章的最后一节应讨论的主要客户。

This section is really only required for enterprise (large) companies that have very few customers. Most small businesses and typical startups can skip this and move on.

But if you selling to other businesses (B2B), you may have a few key customers that are critical to the success of your business, or a handful of important customers that are trend leaders in your space. If so, use this final portion of your target market chapter to provide details about those customers and how they are important to your business’s success.

Competition

我mmediately following your target market section, you should describe你的竞争。还有谁在提供解决方案,试图解决客户的痛点?什么是你在竞争中的竞争优势?

Most business plans use a“competitor matrix”很容易对他们的竞争比较它们的功能。在你的商业计划中的这一部分说明了最重要的事情是你的解决方案如何为不同或比其他产品更好,一个潜在客户可能会考虑。投资者会想知道你有什么优势在竞争中脱颖而出,如何你打算区分自己。

One of the biggest mistakes entrepreneurs make in their business plans is stating that they don’t have any competition.

The simple fact is that all businesses have competition。竞争对手可能并不总是以“直接竞争”,这是当你有一个竞争对手提供类似的解决方案,以你的产品形式。很多时候,你可能会用“间接的竞争,”这是一个处理当消费者解决他们的问题,是完全不同的一种解决方案。

For example, when Henry Ford was first marketing his cars, there was very little direct competition from other car manufacturers—there weren’t any other cars. Instead, Ford was competing against other modes of transportation—horses, bikes, trains, and walking. On the surface, none of these things look like real direct competition, but they were how people were to solving their transportation problems at that time.

未来的产品和服务

所有的企业家都有的,他们想利用业务在未来,如果他们是成功的愿景。

While it’s tempting to spend a lot of time exploring future opportunities for new products and services, you shouldn’t expand too much on these ideas in your business plan. It’s certainly useful to include a paragraph or two about potential future plans, to show investors where you are headed in the long term, but you don’t want your plan to be dominated by long-range plans that may or may not come to fruition. The focus should be on bringing your first products and services to market.

商业计划书的执行部分

执行

Now that you’ve completed the opportunity chapter, you’re going to move on to the execution chapter, which includes everything about how you’re actually going to make your business work. You’ll cover your marketing and sales plans, operations, how you’ll measure success, and the key milestones that you expect to achieve.

Marketing and sales plan

Themarketing and sales plan你的商业计划的细节,你打算如何达到你的目标细分市场的部分(也称为目标市场ing), how you plan on selling to those target markets, whatyour pricing planis, and what types of activities and partnerships you need to make your business a success.

Before you even think about writing your marketing plan, you must have your target market well-defined and have your buyer persona(s) fleshed out. Without truly understanding who you are marketing to, a marketing plan will have little value.

你的positioning statement

The first part of your marketing and sales plan is your positioning statement. Positioning is how you will try and present your company to your customers. Are you the low-price solution, or are you the premium, luxury brand in your market? Do you offer something that your competitors don’t offer?

Before you start working on your positioning statement, you should take a little time to evaluate the current market and answer the following questions:

  • What features or benefits do you offer that your competitors don’t?
  • 什么是客户的主要需求和愿望?
  • How are your competitors positioning themselves?
  • 你打算如何从竞争中实现差异?换句话说,客户为什么要选择你,而不是别人?
  • Where do you see your company in the landscape of other solutions?

一旦你回答这些问题,你就可以work on your positioning strategy and define it in your business plan.

Don’t worry about making your positioning statement very long or in-depth. You just need to explain where your company sits within the competitive landscape and what your core value proposition is that differentiates your company from the alternatives that a customer might consider.

You can use this simple formula to develop a positioning statement:

For [target market description] who [target market need], [this product] [how it meets the need]. Unlike [key competition], it [most important distinguishing feature].

For example, the positioning statement forLivePlan, our business planning product,is: “For the businessperson who is starting a new company, launching new products or seeking funding or partners, LivePlan is software that produces professional business plans quickly and easily. Unlike [name omitted], LivePlan creates a real business plan, with real insights—not just cookie-cutter, fill-in-the-blank templates.”

价钱

Once you know what your overall positioning strategy is, you can move on topricing

你的定位策略往往会是一个主要的博士iver of how you price your offerings. Price sends a very strong message to consumers and can be an important tool to communicate your positioning to consumers. If you are offering a premium product, a premium price will quickly communicate that message to consumers.

Deciding on your price can feel more like an art than a science, but there are some basic rules that you should follow:

  • 覆盖成本。当然也有例外,但在大多数情况下,比它的成本你提供你的产品或服务,您应该向您的客户提供更多。
  • 一级和二级利润中心的价格。你的initial price may not be your primary profit center. For example, you may sell your product at, or even below, your cost, but require a much more profitable maintenance or support contract to go along with the purchase.
  • Matching the market rate。你的价格需要与消费者的需求和期望相匹配。价格太高,你可能没有客户。价格太低,人们可能低估了你的产品。

You can approach your pricing strategy in different ways. Here are a few ways that you can think about your pricing and come up with the right strategy for your business:

  • 成本加成定价。You can establish your pricing based on several factors. You can look at your costs and then mark up your offering from there. This is usually called “cost-plus pricing” and can be effective for manufacturers where covering initial costs is critical.
  • Market-based pricing.另一种方法是看竞争对手的当前景观和依据是什么,市场预期再降价。你可以在价格高端或市场的低端,以建立您的定位。
  • Value pricing.Yet another method is to look at a “value pricing” model where you determine the price based on how much value you are providing to your customer. For example, if you are marketing lawn care to busy professionals, you may be saving your customers 1 hour/week. If that hour of their time is valued at $50/hour, your service could charge $30/hour.

Promotion

定价和你的推广策略的照顾,它的时间来定位一下。一个振兴计划的细节,你计划如何与你的潜在客户和客户沟通。请记住,你要衡量多少,他们的促销费用和销售多少传递是很重要的。不盈利的促销计划是很难在长期保持。

Packaging

我f you are selling a product,该产品的包装是非常关键。我f you have images of your packaging, including those in your business plan is always a good idea.

要确保你的计划的包装部分回答了以下问题:

  • Does your packaging match your positioning strategy?
  • How does your packaging communicate your key value proposition?
  • How does your packaging compare to your competition?

广告

你的business plan should include an overview of the kinds of advertising you plan to spend money on. Will you be advertising online? Or perhaps intraditional, offline media?你的广告计划的一个关键组成部分是你衡量广告的成功计划。

Public relations

Gettingthe media to cover you—PR—can be a great way to reach your customers. Getting aprominent review你的产品或服务,可以给你你需要拓展您的业务曝光。如果公共关系,如果你的促销战略的一部分,细节你的计划在这里。

内容营销

A popular strategy for promotion is engaging in what is called content marketing.

内容营销is what Bplans is all about. It’s when you publish useful information, tips, and advice—usually made available for free—so that your target market can get to know your company through the expertise that you deliver. Content marketing is about teaching and educating your prospects on topics that they are interested in, not just on the features and benefits that you offer.

Social media

These days, having a social media presence is essentially a requirement for the vast majority of businesses.

You don’t need to be on every social media channel,但你必须要对那些你的客户上。越来越多,前景正在使用社交媒体来了解公司,并找出他们是多么的敏感。

Strategic alliances

As part of your marketing plan, you may rely on working closely with another company in a form of partnership.

这种伙伴关系有助于为贵公司提供进入的目标市场定位,同时让你的合作伙伴提供了一个新的产品或服务给他们的客户。

我f you have partnerships already established, it’s important to detail those partnerships in your business plan.

Operations

业务科业务是如何工作的。这是物流,技术等具体细节。根据业务的类型,你开始,你可能会或可能不会需要以下几个部分。betway官网只有包括您需要什么,删除一切。

采购和履行

如果你的company is buying the products it is selling from other vendors, it’s important to include details on where your products are coming from, how they get delivered to you, and ultimately how you deliver the products to the customer—that’ssourcing and fulfillment

我f you are sourcing products from manufacturers overseas, investors are going to want to know about your progress working with these suppliers. If your business is going to be delivering products to your customers, you should describe your plans for shipping your products.

技术

如果你是一家技术公司,它是你的商业计划书来描述你的技术和你的“秘密武器”是至关重要的。

You don’t have to give away trade secrets in your business plan, but you do need to describe how your technology is different and better than other solutions out there. At a high level, you will want to describe how your technology works. You don’t need to go into excruciating detail here, though—if an investor is interested in more detail they will ask for it, and you can provide that information in your appendix.

记住,你的目标是让你的商业计划尽可能的短,所以太多细节在这里可以很容易使你的计划太长时间。

Distribution

For product companies, a distribution plan is an important part of the complete business plan. For the most part, service companies can skip this piece and move on.

配送是你将如何让你的产品到您的客户手中。每个行业都有不同的分销渠道,并创造你的发行计划是采访别人在你的行业弄清楚它们的分布模式是什么样的最佳方式。

下面是一些常见的销售模式,你可以考虑为您的企业:

直接配送

Selling directly to consumers is by far the most simple and most profitable option.

你可以考虑传球直接给您的客户销售储蓄或你可以简单地增加你的利润空间。您仍然需要支付的你将如何让你的产品你的客户从你的仓库物流,而是直接分配模型通常是相当简单的。

零售分销

大多数大型零售商不喜欢处理数千个独立供应商的麻烦。

我nstead, they prefer to buy through large distribution companies that aggregate products from lots of suppliers and then make that inventory available to retailers to purchase. Of course, these distributors take a percentage of the sales that pass through their warehouses.

Manufacturers’ representatives

These are typically salespeople who work for a “repping” agency. They often have relationships with retailers and distributors and work to sell your products into the appropriate channel. They typically work on commission and it’s not uncommon for a rep to be necessary for getting a new company access to a distributor or retailer.

OEM

This stands for “original equipment manufacturer.” If your product is sold to another company that then incorporates your product into their finished product, then you are using an OEM channel.

A good example of this is car parts suppliers. While large auto manufacturers do build large components of their cars, they also purchase common parts from third-party vendors and incorporate those parts into the finished vehicle.

大多数公司采用的分销渠道的混合物作为其计划的一部分,所以不觉得你需要被限制在单个通道。例如,它是很常见的两个直接销售andvia distributors—you can purchase an iPhone directly from Apple, or go into a Target store and get one there.

里程碑和指标

A business plan is only a document on paper without a real path to get the work done, complete with a schedule, defined roles, and key responsibilities.

While themilestones and metricssection of your business plan may not be long, it’s critical that you take the time to look forward and schedule the next critical steps for your business. Investors will want to see that you understand what needs to happen to make your plans a reality and that you are working on a realistic schedule.

Start with a quick review of your milestones.里程碑are planned major goals. For example, if you are producing a medical device, you will have milestones associated with clinical testing and government approval processes. If you are producing a consumer product, you may have milestones associated with prototypes, finding manufacturers, and first-order receipt.

Traction

While milestones look forward, you will also want to take a look back at major accomplishments that you have already had. Investors like to call this “traction.” What this means is that your company has shown some evidence of early success.

牵引可能是一些最初的销售,一个成功的试点方案,或显著的合作伙伴关系。分享此证明贵公司不仅仅是一个想法,它有实际的证据,这将是一个成功的,可以是登陆你需要拓展业务的资金至关重要。

度量

除了里程碑和牵引,你的商业计划应详细说明the key metrics你会看着你的业务下车地面。指标是指你看定期来判断你的企业的健康的数字。他们成长为司机你business model和你的财务计划。

For example, a restaurant may pay special attention to the number of table turns they have on an average night and the ratio of drink sales to food sales. An online software company might look at churn rates (the percentage of customers that cancel) and new signups. Every business will have key metrics that it watches to monitor growth and spot trouble early, and your business plan should detail the key metrics that you will be tracking in your business.

Key assumptions and risks

Finally, your business plan should detail the key assumptions you have made that are important for your business’s success.

考虑关键假设另一种方法是考虑风险。What risks are you taking with your business?For example, if you don’t have a proven demand for a new product, you are making an assumption that people will want what you are building. If you are relying on online advertising as a major promotional channel, you are making assumptions about the costs of that advertising and the percentage of ad viewers that will actually make a purchase.

了解你的假设是什么,你开始创业可以使企业的成功与失败企业之间的差别。当你认识到你的假设,你可以着手证明你的假设是正确的。你可以最大限度地减少你的假设越多,就越有可能的是,你的业务将取得成功。

商业计划的团队和公司部分

公司概况和团队

在本章中,您将审核您公司的结构,谁是关键团队成员。因为他们会想知道谁是背后的公司,如果他们可以是一个好主意转化为一个伟大的企业这些细节对投资者尤其重要。

球队

The old adage is that investors don’t invest in ideas, they invest in people. Some investors even go as far as to say that they would rather invest in a mediocre idea with a great team behind it than a blockbuster idea with a mediocre team.

What this really means is that running a successful business all comes down to getting the work down. Can you actually accomplish what you have planned? Do you have the right team in place to turn a good idea into a great business that will have customers banging down your doors?

Thecompany overview and teamchapter of your business plan is where you make your best case that you have the right team in place to execute on your idea. It should show that you have thought about the important roles and responsibilities your business needs in order to grow and be successful.

包括突出每个按键团队成员的相关经历短暂的BIOS。使为什么球队是把一个想法变成现实的权利队的情况下它在这里很重要。他们有一个正确的行业经验和背景?有团队的成员有过创业的成功?

A common mistake novice entrepreneurs make in describing the management team is giving everyone on the team a C-level title (CEO, CMO, COO, and so on). While this might be good for egos, it’s often not realistic. As a company grows, you may require different types of experience and knowledge. It’s often better to allow for future growth of titles rather than to start everyone at the top with no room for future growth or change.

你的management team doesn’t necessarily need to be complete in order to have a complete business plan. If you know that you have management team gaps, that’s O.K. In fact, investors see the fact that you know you are missing certain key people as a sign of maturity and knowledge about what your business needs to succeed. If you do have gaps in your team, simply identify them and indicate that you are looking for the right people to fill certain roles.

Finally, you may choose to include a proposed organizational chart in your business plan. This isn’t critical and can certainly live in your business plan’s appendix. At some point, as you explore funding options, you may be asked for an “org chart,” so it’s good to have one. Beyond raising money, an org chart is also a useful planning tool to help you think about your company and how it will grow over time. What key roles will you be looking to fill in the future and how will you structure your teams to get the most out of them? An org chart can help you think through these questions.

公司简介

Thecompany overviewwill most likely be the shortest section of your business plan. For a plan that you intend to just share internally with your business partners and team members, skip this section and move on.

For a plan that you will share with people outside of your company, this section should include:

  • Mission statement
  • 我ntellectual property
  • A review of your company’s legal structure and ownership
  • The business location
  • 如果它是该公司简史现有的公司

Mission statement

不要陷入上花费一天或更长时间的陷阱你mission statement。An hour or two should be plenty of time.

Avoid putting together a long, generic statement about how your company is serving its customers, employees, and so on. Your company mission should be short—one or two sentences at most—and it should encompass, at a very high level, what you are trying to do. Frankly, your mission statement and你的整体价值主张might even be the same thing.

在这里,在帕洛阿尔托软件(Bplans的制造商),我们的使命是:“我们帮助人们成功创业。”它的简单,包括我们从类型的产品做的一切,我们建立的一种营销方式,我们做的。

我ntellectual property

This mostly applies to technology and scientific ventures, so just skip this if you don’t need to discuss your patents and other intellectual property.

But, if you haveintellectual propertythat is proprietary to your business and helps your business defend itself against competitors, you should detail that information here. If you have patents or are in the patent application process, this is the place to highlight those patents. Equally important to discuss is technology licensing—if you are licensing core technology from someone else, you need to disclose that in your business plan and be sure to include details of the financial relationship.

商业structure and ownership

你的company overview should also include a summary of your company’scurrent business structure。Are you有限责任公司A C-CORPAn S-corpA sole proprietor我na partnership

请务必确定提供的审查how the business is owned为好。是否每个贸易伙伴拥有企业的平等部分?所有权如何分割?潜在的贷款人和投资者想知道企业的结构之前,他们会考虑贷款或投资。

Company history

我f you are writing a business plan for an existing company, it’s appropriate to include a brief history of the company and highlight major historical achievements. Again, keep this section short—no more than a few paragraphs at most.

This section is especially useful to give context to the rest of your plan, and can also be very useful for internal plans. The company history section can provide new employees with a background on the company so that they have a better context for the work that they are doing and where the company has come from over the years.

Location

最后,你的商业计划的公司概述部分应说明你的当前位置和该公司所拥有的任何设施。

For businesses that serve consumers from a storefront, this information is critical. Also, for businesses that require large facilities for manufacturing, warehousing, and so on, this information is an important part of your plan.

一份商业计划书的财务计划部

Financial plan

最后,但并非最不重要的,是你的财务计划的章节。这往往就是企业家找到最艰巨的,但它并没有被恐吓,因为它似乎。商业financials对于大多数创业公司比你更复杂ink, and a business degree is certainly not required tobuild a solid financial forecast。也就是说,如果你需要额外的帮助,也有大量的工具和资源,在那里帮你建立一个稳固的财务计划。

A typical financial plan will have monthlysales and revenue forecast前12个月,对剩余的三到五年,然后年度预测。三年的预测通常是足够的,但一些投资者会要求一个五年的预测。

Following are details of the financial statements that you should include in your business plan, and a brief overview of what should be in each section.

销售预测

你的销售预测只是,你预测你是多少going to sell over the next few years.

A sales forecast is typically broken down into several rows, with a row for each core product or service that you are offering. Don’t make the mistake of breaking down your sales forecast into excruciating detail. Just focus on the high-level at this point.

For example, if you are对于ecasting sales for a restaurant,你可能你的预测分解成几组:午餐,晚餐和饮料。如果你是一个产品公司,你可以通过细分目标市场或成主要产品类别打破你的预测。

你的销售预测will also include a corresponding row for each sales row to coverCost of Goods Sold,也被称为COGS(也称为直接费用)。这些行显示有关使您的产品或提供服务的费用。COGS应该只包括那些直接关系到让你的产品,而不是正常的业务支出,如房租,保险,工资等。对于餐馆的成本,这将是原料的成本。对于一个产品的公司,它会原材料的成本。对于咨询业务,这可能是纸张和其它演示材料成本。

Personnel plan

你的人员计划的细节,你有多少打算支付你的员工。对于一个小公司,你可能会名单上的人员计划和多少,每月将支付每个位置每个位置。对于较大的公司,人员计划一般分为功能基团,如“市场营销”和“销售”。

The personnel plan will also include what is typically called “employee burden,” which is the cost of an employee beyond salary. This includes payroll taxes, insurance, and other necessary costs that you will incur every month for having an employee on your payroll.

损益表或损益表

也被称为income statement,利润和损失(或P&L)就是你的号码都走到一起并显示,如果你正在做一个盈利或采取损失。从销售损益表中提取数据预测和你的人员规划和还包括与你的业务运行相关的所有其他日常开支清单。你可以下载一个免费的example of an income statement这里。

The P&L also contains the all-important “bottom line” where your expenses are subtracted from your earnings to show if your business is making a profit each month or potentially incurring some losses while you grow.

Download the Business Plan Template today!

一个典型的损益将是一个电子表格,包括以下内容:

  • Sales (or income or revenue).这个数字将来自于你的销售预测工作表,并包括由业务所产生的全部收益。
  • Cost of goods sold (COGS).这个数字也来自你的销售预测是销售你的产品的总成本。对于服务企业来说,这也可以被称为销售或直接成本的费用。
  • Gross margin。从销售减去你的销售成本得到这个数字。大多数损益表也显示这个数字占总销售额的百分比(毛利率/销售额=毛利润百分比)
  • Operating expenses。列出所有与你的业务运行,不包括销售成本,你已经详细介绍相关的费用。你也应该排除税项,折旧及摊销。但是,您include salaries, research and development (R&D) expenses, marketing expenses, and other expenses here.
  • 总经营费用。This is the sum of your operating expenses.
  • 营业收入。这也被称为EBITDA, or earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization. This is a simple calculation where you just subtract your total operating expenses and COGS from your sales.
  • 利息,税项,折旧及摊销。我f you have any of these expense streams, you will list them below your operating income.
  • Total expenses.Add your operating expenses to interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization to get your total expenses.
  • Net profit.这是所有重要的底线节目,如果你已经实现了盈利,或采取了损失,给定的一个月或一年期间。

Cash flow statement

Thecash flow statement常常会与损益表困惑,但他们都非常不同,各自有不同的目的。而P&L计算你的利润和亏损,现金流量表跟踪有多少现金(银行的钱),你必须在任何给定的点。得到例如现金流量表这里

理解这两种说法之间的区别的关键是理解the difference between cash and profits.The simplest way to think about it is when you make a sale. If you need to send a bill to your customer and then your customer takes 30 or 60 days to pay the bill, you don’t have the cash from the sale right away. But, you will have booked the sale in your P&L and shown a profit from that sale the day you made the sale.

A typical cash flow statement starts with the amount of cash you have on hand, adds new cash received through cash sales and paid invoices, and then subtracts cash that you have paid out as you pay bills, pay off loans, pay taxes, etc. This will then leave you with your total cash flow (cash in minus cash out) and your ending cash starting cash + cash in – cash out = ending cash).

你的现金流量表会告诉你,当你可能较低的现金,而当它可能是购买新设备的最佳时机。首先,你的现金流量表会帮助你找出你可能需要多少资金来提高或借增加你的公司。由于运营的公司不能无需关闭了大门,用你的现金流量表,计算出你的低现金点和考虑选择额外的现金运行带来的资金流出。

Balance sheet

The last financial statement that most businesses will need to create as part of their business plan is thebalance sheet。资产负债表提供您的企业的财务状况进行了概述。它列出了你的公司,负债,和你的(所有者)权益资产。如果从资产减去公司的债务,你能确定净资产的公司。

我nstead of providing additional detail on the balance sheet here, I’ll refer you to本文on building and reading balance sheets.You can also download thisbalance sheet example为了帮助您上手。

Use of funds

我f you are raising money from investors, you should include a brief section of your business plan that details exactly how you plan on using your investors’ cash.

This section doesn’t need to go into excruciating detail about how every last dollar will be spent, but instead, show the major areas where the investors’ funds will be spent. These could include marketing, R&D, sales, or perhaps purchasing inventory.

Exit strategy

The last thing that you might need to include in your financial plan chapter is a section on你的退出策略

退出策略是你的最终销售业务,要么给另一家公司,或者在IPO的公共计划。如果你有投资,他们会想知道你对这个想法。如果你正在运行一个企业,你打算保持所有权无限期,你也不会寻求天使投资或风险投资,你可以跳过退出策略部分。毕竟,你的投资者会希望得到他们的投资回报,他们将得到这个问题的唯一办法是,如果公司被出售给别人。

Again, you don’t need to go into excruciating detail here, but you should identify some companies that might be interested in buying you if you are successful.

business plan appendix

Appendix

Anappendix to your business planisn’t a required chapter by any means, but it is a useful place to stick any charts, tables, definitions, legal notes, or other critical information that either felt too long or too out-of-place to include elsewhere in your business plan. If you have a patent or a patent-pending, or illustrations of your product, this is where you’d want to include the details.

延伸阅读

如果你想打造你的商业计划更详细信息,请看看这些文章。他们将指导您完成创建一个成功的计划,将打动你的投资者的详细信息:

betway手机网页业务规划工具和下载

它可以是非常有帮助的,你去通过规划过程中,查看一些已完成的商业计划。我建议你看一看我们的sample business plan libraryand下载我们的免费商业计划书模板

You might also want to check out our商业计划书模板通过我们的软件,LivePlan。You can also check outLivePlan的商业计划书咨询, which will give you a professional business plan written by an MBA in five business days.

This article is part of both our创业指南我们商业Planning Guide—curated lists of our articles that will get you up and running in no time!

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